Prokaryotes and eukaryotes CELLS

A. History and corpuscular theory
The term cell is derived from the Latin cellula, which means a small space. The term is given by the physicist-mathematician and architect nationality ingggris Robert Hook in 1665. He found a bottle cork slices under a microscope, that the existence of small units which are limited by the walls of the cork section.
In 1838 Matthias Schleden botanist and zoologist Theodor Schwan both interested in the similarities found in different structures of plants and animals, they proposed the concept that organisms are composed of cells and the cell is the structural unity of living things. Of all the opinions of experts concluded that the cell is the smallest structural unit and the functions of a living thing.
Theory there are two kinds of cells
1. Protoplasm theory
In the middle ages-19th century, some biologists began to recognize how important the turbid liquid contained within the cell. Purkinje, (1839) with the contents of the cell protoplasm. In 1892, Hertwig protoplasm theory, that all living things including animals and plants were prepared by the protoplasm. So the cell is an accumulation of living substance or protoplasm which has a core and contained in a space bounded by the outer membrane.
2. Organism theory
Body of multicellular organisms (multi-cellular) is a collection of cytoplasm (protoplasm) who do not complete division into cells as a center for carrying out various activities. In multicellular organisms it is individuals who have a high differentiation of protoplasm.
B. Tues prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

1. Tues prokaryotic
Tues only owned by the prokaryotic kingdom Monera. Tues prokaryotes do not have a clear cell nucleus. In Greek "pro means before" and "karyon means the cell nucleus." In the genetic substance is concentrated in a collection called nukleoid that is not restricted to the cell membrane to another. Prokaryotic cell structure is simpler than eukaryotic. Have prokaryotic ribosome very much and measuring a few micrometers, and in nukleoplasma composed of highly viscous fluid called cytosol, and in fact this is a lot cytosolic organelles with specific functions and structures.
Tues prokaryotic is owned by blue algae and bacteria and prokaryotic groups have only one wrapper system organized on the inside. This section consists of core components such as molecules of DNA, RNA, and protein core surrounded by a basic substance of the cytoplasm. All material is wrapped by the plasma membrane and serves as a place to attach the enzyme.
• blue algae

In the classification, blue algae were classified into Divisio Cyanophyta.
- Types of cells: prokaryotic cells (together with bacteria)
- Unicellular and multicellular
- Have a pigment fikosianin
- Chlorophyll is not in the chloroplasts, but they are scattered throughout the cytoplasm
- Aquatic (mainly freshwater) and humid places.
- Able to live in waters with temperatures up to 85 degrees C (hot spring), so the Blue Algae is one of the pioneer vegetation.
1. Unicellular blue algae
- Chroococcus -> live in the water / pool tranquil
- Gloeocapsa -> live on rocks or epiphytic on other plants
2. Unicellular blue algae colonize
- Polycistis
- Spirulina -> can be processed into health foods (food
3. Threadlike blue algae
- Oscillatoria
- Nostoc commune
- Anabaena azollae and anabaena cycadae symbiosis with Azolla
pinnata and Cycas rumphii. Azollae Anabaena Azolla Symbiosis dnegan
pinnata as an alternative to urea, because of this symbiosis can
increasing levels of nitrogen in paddy fields.
• Bacteria

• Bacteria are living things that are everywhere ... in the air we breathe, the ground beneath us and of course in our body. In fact, we are fully alive in the midst of the world of bacteria that are not derived from the word Bakterion tampak.Bakteri (greek = rods). In the classification, bacteria are classified into the Divisio Schizomycetes.
• Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen except with the aid of a microscope. They are sized micron (1 / 1000 mm). As with other living creatures, bacteria need food, water and temperature suitable to live and breed. Sometimes these little creatures live in peace with each other but sometimes they involved a battle between life and death to compete for food and a place to live. We can not directly see, hear or feel the drama of life of these bacteria, but they have various ways so that its presence can be felt.
General characteristics of bacteria
 Body unicellular (single celled)
 No chlorophyll (despite that there are several types of bacteria which have pigments such as chlorophyll so that they can photosynthesize and life Autotroph
 Reproduction by dividing themselves (with bisection Amitosis)
 Habitat: bacteria live everywhere (soil, water, air, living things)
 Unit bacteria are micron size (10-3)
Forms of Bacteria
o coccus: a round shape, monokokus, diplokokus, streptococci, staphylococci, sarkina
o Basil: stem form, diplobasil, streptobasil
o Spiral: a spiral shape, spirilium (spiritual rough), spirokaet (smooth spiral)
o Vibrio: a comma
Motion Tools Bacteria
Some bacteria are able to move by using a feather whip / flagellum. Based on the presence or absence of flagella and the position of the flagellum, we know of 5 different bacteria.
1. Atrich: berflagel not bacteria. For example: Escherichia coli
2. Monotrich: having one end of the flagellum. For example: Vibrio cholerae
3. Lopotrich: have more than one flagellum at one end. For example: Rhodospirillum rubrum
4. Ampitrich: have one or more flagella at both ends. For example: Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5. Peritrich: have a flagellum on the entire surface of the body. For example: Salmonella typhosa
Role of Bacteria In Life
1. As a creature Decomposers / Saprovor. Together with fungi, bacteria act as decomposers creatures are already dead
2. Producing Antibiotics. Actinomycetes group of bacteria (an intermediate form between bacteria and fungi) produced a variety of antibiotics. For example: Streptomycin>> from Streptomyces griseus, Kloramfemikol>> from Streptomyces venezuelae.
3. Producing Food Materials. - Acetic acid>> from Acetobacter acetil - Yogurt>> from Lactobacillurs bulgaricus - Sari coconut / Nata de Coco>> from Acetobacter xylinum
4. Fastener-free N2 in the air:
Leguminosae symbiosis with plants (plant pod)
- Rhizobium leguminosarum and R. radicicola.
Living free: - Azotobacter, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Clostridium pasteurianum.
Adverse Other Creatures
Pathogenic bacteria is a bacterial parasite that can cause disease in other organisms.

2. Eukaryotic cells
Tues eukarioti consists of three main components of cell wall and plasma membrane, cytoplasm and cell nucleus.
a) The cell walls
Cell wall formed by the protoplasm in telofase stage and serves to protect cells and give shape to the cell. Protoplasm of plant cells are separated from the outside world by the rather stiff cell wall made of cellulose (polysaccharides), lignin, and suberin which is permeable (to pass water and other dissolved substances). In the epidermal cell walls contain chitin and candles, causing the cell wall is imperbeabel.
The cell walls are not owned by a group of animals, the plants have some sort of group of small channels in the form of cracks or spots where the cytoplasm of one cell associated with the cytoplasm of other cells. This relationship is called plasmodesma and occurs transfortasi and communication between cells occur.
b) Cytoplasm
Under the plasma membrane there is a liquid / colloidal called protoplasm. Protoplasm contained outside the nucleus is called cytoplasm, and in the plasma called the core. In the cytoplasm there are living structures, as organoid or organelles or protoplasmik. While the structure of the plasma nonliving, deutoplasma or inklusion or in another term called nonprotoplasmik.
c) The core cell
The core cells are not dividing them is round, elliptic, or like a lens all the surface is covered by the cytoplasm. The core cell organelles merupkan very important because the nucleus is controlling the whole cell activity. Cell membrane covered by a membrane called the nuclear membrane normally, but in the cells of bacteria and algae blue parts are not covered by a membrane. Parts of the cell nucleus, namely:
Liquid-core / nukleoplasma
-Order core
And child-core / nucleolus

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